Thu, 10 / 2019 8:32 am | tailieuhay
  1. Diễn tả số lượng
Meaning + countable N + uncountable N
Rất nhiều A large number of A good/ great deal/ amount of
Nhiều Quite a few

A number of

A lot of/ lots of

Many

Quite a little

A lot of/ lots of

Much

 

Một vài, một ít (đủ để làm gì) A few

Some

A little

Few

Rất ít, hầu như không (very) few (very) little
  1. Tên của một nhóm
    1. Động vật
      • – a pack of dogs/wolves
      • – a school of fish
      • – a flock/flight of birds
      • – a flock of sheep/goats
      • – a swarm of insects/bees
      • – a herd of cattle/deer/elephants/pigs
      • – a pride of lions
      • – a cloud of flies
    2. Người
      • – a group of ….
      • – a gang of thieves
      • – a company of actors
    3. Vật
      • – A fleets of ships
      • – A bunch of keys/bananas/flowers/grapes
      • – A flight of aeroplanes/steps
      • – A constellation of stars
    4. Những từ kết thúc bằng –ic và –ical
      1. Nghĩa không khác nhau
        • – Geographic(al)
        • – Dynamic(al)
        • – Fanatic(al)
        • – Poetic(al)
        • – Strategic(al)
        • – Periodic(al)
        • – Cynic(al)
        • – Arthmetic(al)
        • – Geometric(al)
        • – Symmetric(al)
      2. Nghĩa khác nhau
classic : best quality, elegant classical : belongs to the past
economic : connected with economy economical : using no more money than necessary, frugal
electric : use/produce electricity electrical : connected with electricity
historic : important historical : connected with the past
  1. Affect – effect
  N V
Affect [‘æfekt]

emotion which may influence behavior (used in psychology only)

[ə’fekt]

to make a difference to or influence something

Your opinion will not affect my decision.

Effect [i’fekt]

a result or a consequence

Does TV have a effect on the bahaviors of young children?

[i’fekt]

to achieve or produce

They hope to effect a reconciliation.

  1. Most – almost – mostly
    1. Khác nhau về nghĩa
  Adv Determiner Pronoun
Most –    To the greatest degree: nhất

  What did you enjoy (the) most?

–    Very, extremely, completely: rất, cực kì

It was most kind of you to meet me.

–      The largest in number or amount: nhiều nhất

   He got (the) most votes.

–      More than half of somebody/ something; almost all of somebody/ something: hầu hết

    I like most vegatable.

–    Largest in number or amount.

  Who ate the most?

–    More than half of somebody/ something; almost all of somebody/ something.

  Most of the people I had invited turned up.

 

 

Almost Not quite (nearly): gần như (sắp đến mức tuyệt đối)

I like almost all of them.

The story is almost certainly false.

They’ll eat almost anything.

Their house is almost opposite ours.

   
Mostly Mainly, generally: thường, hầu như, gần như (phần lớn)

His book is mostly useless.

We’re mostly out on Sunday.

   
  1. Khác nhau về cấu trúc
    • – Most + V/ / Adj/ (of the) pluN/ of pronouns
    • – Mostly + adj
    • – Almost + V/ Adj/ certain words (any, anything, anyone, no, nobody, nothing, all, every, everybody)
  2. Assure – ensure – insure – reassure
    • – Assure:
      • cam đoan, khẳng định chắc chắn. She’s perfectly safe. I can assure you.
      • đảm bảo. Victory would assure a place in the finals.
      • = ensure (BrE)/ insure (AmE)/ guarantee
    • – Insure against/for something: mua bảo hiểm
    • – Reassure somebody that… / about something: trấn an
  3. Worthless – valueless – priceless – valuable – invaluable

Thứ tự giá trị giảm dần:

Priceless (vô giá)  invaluable (rất có giá trị, rất có ích) > valuable (có giá trị) > valueless = worthless (vô giá trị)

  1. Each – Every
  Position Followed by… Ex
Before a singN After a pluN/pro + sing V + plu V  
Each ü   ü   Each student has been given his ỏ her own email address.
  ü   ü They each have their own email address
Every ü   ü   Every student is given an email address

Each (one) of

                             + plu N/pro + sing V

Every one of

  1. Some certain pairs of words:

Accept (v): chấp nhận Except (prep): ngoại trừ (= apart from)
All together: cùng nhau

Let’s sing all together

Altogether: tổng cộng

We have invited 50 people altogether

Disinterested (adj): khách quan Uninterested (adj): không hứng thú. >< interested
Each other: used with 2 people/ things One another: used with  3
Sensible (adj): nhạy bén, sắc sảo Sensitive (adj): nhạy cảm
Childlike (adj): giống trẻ con Childish (adj): trẻ con
Lie (intransitive V):

–         Nằm (lie – lay – lain)

–         Nói dối (lie – lied – lied)

Lay (transitive V):

–         Đặt (lay – laid – laid)

Principle (n) a rule, a law that something is based on (nguyên tắc)

ð in principle (idm):

–         Về nguyên tắc, về nguyên lí

–         Nói chung = in general

Principal

–         (n): hiệu trưởng

–         (adj): chính, quan trọng (= important, main)

Unable (adj) + to V: không đủ khả năng, không thể làm gì Disable (adj): khuyết tật (handicapped)
Deadly

–         (adv):

vô cùng, cực kì (= extremely)

hoàn toàn (=completely)

–         (adj): gây chết người (= lethal)

 

Deathly (adv/adj): giống như chết, có liên quan đến cái chết
Various (adj): đa dạng, phong phú (diverse) Variable (adj): có thể thay đổi (fluctuating) >< invariable
Effective (adj): có tác dụng, giải quyết được vấn đề >< ineffective Efficient (adj): có hiệu quả, không lãng phí thời gian, năng lượng >< inefficient
Lend (v): cho mượn

Could you lend me some money?

Borrow (v): mượn

Can I borrow your pen?

Stationary (adj): tĩnh, không di chuyển Stationery (n): văn phòng phẩm
Chance (n)

–         Khả năng xảy ra (a possibility of something happening)

–         Cơ hội

–         Sự tình cờ

Opportunity (n) = chance: cơ hội
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